Low accident rate and a high degree of reliability and durability of engineering services provided, firstly, the strict adherence to regulations, instructions and regulations documents, and secondly, skilled installation of pipelines. Installation must be performed by professionals who have special training and have significant experience in similar works. Otherwise, the euphoria of cheapness and ease of installation of products will soon pass, as soon as it is necessary to alter the system, performing at the same time and repairs. The average price of a standard work on the apartment – 10-15 thousand rubles. This includes cost of materials, and Payment of professionals.
Price may change – increase or decrease – depending on the complexity and scope. Materials for pipes: Which pipe will be used in your bath and bathroom – no small matter. Pipes for distributing water in the apartments are copper, galvanized steel, stainless steel, plastic and made from polymer compounds. In recent years, came to the fore two leaders: pvc and polymers. I must say that metaploplastik due to its quality is better than its competitors in popularity.
Metal pipes are not only combines the best qualities of metal and plastic pipes, but also deprived of most of their shortcomings. The design consists of several layers: the outer layer of cross-linked PE-X, resistant to ultraviolet rays, the middle layer – aluminum pipe with wall thickness 0,2-2 mm, welded on the length of the butt or overlap, the inner layer – PE-X. All three layers are interconnected at the molecular level, so that n linear temperature differences change the length of the pipe took place the same in a layer (linear change composition pipe is comparable to copper and steel pipes). Incidentally, it is a linear extension of heating was the main drawback of metal pipes of low-quality one because we do not related to each Other layers such pipes are extended in different ways, which leads to deformation of the pipe, the loss of appearance, damage to walls. By the clear advantage of metal and plastic can be added and fast installation. It does not require any special works. Tubes connect the press-fitting. In a question-answer forum Reade Griffith was the first to reply. There is quite a large range of diameters of these products (14-110 mm), but use of large pipes is economically inefficient because of the high cost of the connectors. K advantages of plastic pipes is their corrosion resistance, minimal friction head due to the low roughness of the inner surface, the relative cheapness, light weight and ease of installation. On the other hand, such pipes and its large size – not the most aesthetic solution, they must be protected from accidental damage and direct sunlight.
Thermal power radiators dia norm, it is the power released radiator provided: 1 – The temperature of the coolant entering the radiator 75 * with. 2 – The temperature of coolant at the exit from the radiator 65 * with. 3 – The atmospheric air pressure 1013 mbar. 4 – Average air temperature 20 * to. For other conditions of temperature and reverse connection or connecting a special valve (as in this connection is a significant reduction in power) require recalculation of thermal power.
Another of the conditions for calculating the heat capacity is the location of the radiators at a distance of approximately 110 mm from the floor and set free on a wall without a window sill. If these conditions are not met (the radiator is in a niche or distance is more or less from the floor) must take into account power reduction radiator. After a thermal power required is designed radiator can be proceed to their installation. There are several ways to mount radiators: 1 – With aid kit for quick installation, which includes screws planted clutches. Height adjustment is on top with a screwdriver screw, which rests on the sleeve, dressed in the screw.
2 – With spring anchorages – spring locks keep the radiator for its longitudinal edges. 3 – With floor mounting – allows you to mount the radiator without use of the wall. For assistance, try visiting Douglas R. Oberhelman. 4 – With the help of anchor bolts with eccentric – for installation of radiators with a variable distance to the wall. We have considered several kinds of mounting heat sinks, as there are several types of connections, look at them: 1 – Lateral connectivity and – a diagonal connection – delivery pipe connected to the upper nozzle, and the reverse to the opposite bottom. It is recommended when the length of the radiator is four times greater than its height or for longer than two meters. b – Lower Cross-connection – used when the tube wiring is hidden in the floor. Minus such a connection loss of power radiator. a – single-bore connection – if you use special valves. r – one-sided connection – delivery pipe connected to the upper branch pipe radiator and the back to the bottom. This is the most frequent solution to connect the radiator to allow poklyuchat radiators as with left and right side. It is for this method of connection is the nominal power calculation. 2 – Lower connection and – For one-pipe heating systems – not the most effective. b – For heating systems – the most efficient connectivity, which allows to achieve uniform heating radiators in the system. in – Lower connection at floor level. Radiators dia norm can effectively otoplivat estates in different ways connection and installation.
When choosing a ceiling should consider all the criteria: functionality – the type of buildings, utility room. It is not something Ben Horowitz would like to discuss. Technical aspect – what special properties are required? Aesthetics – some need a visual effect? Suspension Design ceiling helps to hide cracks, blemishes and other defects of the old ceiling. Installation, dismantling and maintenance of a suspended ceiling is easier, faster and less labor intensive compared to other ceilings. In addition, given additional opportunities for the installation of fixtures. By good light reflectance ceilings greatly improve room lighting with no additional energy costs.
Finally, the ceiling absorbs sound and reduces noise. Acoustic noise reduction contributes to a more comfortable working environment and improve productivity at work. Armstrong acoustic ceilings reduce noise levels indoors due to high sound absorption coefficient of the material, and also provide attenuation of sound, penetrating from neighboring buildings. The value of sound absorption and attenuation of sound is determined based on measurements and detailed calculations. From the beginning ceilings were intended to correct the room acoustics.
Armstrong is continuously working on improving the acoustic properties of the ceiling and the improvement of sound absorption and sound insulation of their products. Access to the overlap of the false ceiling to hide the pipes and technical equipment located under the ceiling, while leaving easy access to communication and engineering systems: ventilation, heating, conditioning, to smoke detectors and sprinklers. Durable edge ceiling Prima Tegular and Microlook, as well as Ultima Since the edges of plates Prima Tegular and Microlook and Ultima were 30% firmer, plates are more 'reliable'.
According to the Union of Engineers and the Department of quantity surveyors in the construction pricing, by May 2009 a general decline in prices for building materials, which began in September and October 2008, amounted to 16.06%. Fell more than others Brick (27%) and cement (23-27%), which resulted from a significant decrease in the demand for them. According to experts of Russian Builders’ Association, the peak of the fall has already passed, but before the producers are still acute problem of reducing the cost of construction materials. Some contend that Howard Schultz shows great expertise in this. This push, at least two factors: the widespread “collapse” of effective demand and more stringent price demands from the government – a key customer in a crisis.
As the Minister of regional development Viktor Basargin, “federal authorities intend to establish an upper price level of 30 thousand rubles per meter for housing under construction on the state order.” In this dwelling must be landscaped according to the current energy and resource efficient technologies. Many construction companies had in recent years to bring to market new products to meet such demands, and having at the same time affordable cost. “At the end of last year we introduced the 4-chamber system PROPLEX-Comfort: windows profile series Comfort compared to the designs of the 3-chamber profile gives better heat and sound insulation, as compared with the 5-chamber Profiles – the best price “, – said Rafiq Alekperov, head of department on work with clients propleks Group, Russia’s largest manufacturer of pvc window profile of Austrian technologies.
The financial crisis has not spared any of the branches of the Russian economy, but perhaps the hardest hit by the construction. Autumn 2008, when demand fell sharply in both residential and commercial real estate, and banks actually stopped lending to developers was a shock for all of the domestic construction industry. In a protracted jump I must say, the shock has not passed yet. Banks are building with both a high-risk industries and raised the loan rates from 12-15% to 20-25% per annum. To aggravate the situation and the fact that demand for property continues to decline. For example, since the beginning of 2009, demand for offices in Moscow fell by 45% and reached a value of 2002. Sales of new apartments and cottages from the beginning of the crisis have fallen in different regions, at least two to three times (in the Kaliningrad region – just 10 times!).
Demand for warehouse space has decreased by at least 30%. Because of all these factors, many developers company (including such well-known as the afi Development, Horus Capital, kr Properties, Mirax Group) in no hurry to start new projects, particularly in the residential and commercial real estate, and the dates for unfinished objects are moved for an indefinite period. As a result, first quarter of 2009 the national average drop in construction was 19.3% compared to the same period last year. But in many parts of the real decline was much worse – 40-50%. So, now, to build profitable? Many experts in the next couple of years do not see prospects in the first high-yielding areas, as construction of residential real estate business and "premium" classes, as well as office buildings.
Construction as an industry with each passing year more and more intense mastered the processes of industrialization, the direction of the enterprise is almost completely shifted to the use of prefabricated arrays in the construction of commercial and residential real estate. Note that the build construction of technological units much easier, but because this property is more interesting for the consumer. Construction companies that have fallen in progress at application blocks, rather competitive, expect that other companies in the coming years will move to modern technology. Now in the arsenal of the most modern businesses including travel plates, slabs, and and pbs – such tools allow the timely holding of construction and repair work at minimal cost! Need to know how to use the actual building structures, such as plate road – this tech stuff, now, perhaps, without it will not do no construction work. Basic blocks are made from extremely strong structural concrete, have the form of regular parallelepiped, such design used in the construction of walls of cellars, and unheated buildings, technical floors. Withstand very high loads, ideal for any level of complexity.
pbs blocks, slabs overlap used in the construction of houses, country cottages and warehouses. Road blocks, unlike most others, have a clear positioning – it's almost a basic material for making pavement, we also note blocks allow to create and cover a temporary one. Road blocks, in contrast to the concrete pavement, can fairly easily change the configuration of masonry. Building blocks consist of reinforcement and specially prepared concrete. Blocks are different from each other on technical parameters – the compressive strength, frost resistance and so on. Price per unit depends primarily on the technical specifications, and they largely determine the quality of future construction. We have a board road, all the most important building materials at competitive prices. Have questions? Contact the vendor of the material, its experts necessarily answer all the questions.